Thinking Like a Geologist

Assignment: Activity 4, A-J, skip I, pg 32-33; Activity 5, C, D and E 1 and 2, pg. 35; and Activity 6, pg. 36-37.


Observation- using your senses and __________ to determine the characteristics of materials and processes.

Inference- ideas justified with reasonable thinking and evidence (an educated __________)


Unit Conversions (round to the nearest 10th)

ex. 10.0 miles = _______ kilometers

(see chart xi or mathyouneed link)

Density formula

D= M/____

(see mathyouneed)

Calculating Volume

a. V= l x _____ x h (1 cm3= 1 mL)

b. Water displacement method- in a graduated cylinder, __________ the height of the water plus the object from the height of the water alone


Layers of the Earth

Atmosphere- layer of Earth's __________

Cryosphere- layer of Earth's _________

Hydrosphere- layer of Earth's __________

Lithosphere- rigid __________ and upper mantle


Isostatic Equilibrium- Something with a low density, such as the Earth's crust will "_________" above the denser plastic mantle. The bouyant forces are equal to the gravitational force on a floating object until it is balanced like an iceberg or a boat in water!






Lab Work Hint:

  • For Activity 4, question F, Activity 4, fill a 10 ml graduated cylinder to exactly 10 ml, weigh it and calculate the density of water.
  • For Activity 4, question J1. Calculating Rates
    • Rates= Change in factor you are studying divided by the change in time
    • (mathyouneed)
  • For Activity 4, question J2. Calculating Gradients
    • Gradients= Change in factor you are studying divided by change in distance.
  • For Activity 5, question C. The wood block will displace a volume of water that has the same mass as the entire wood block. Therefore, a wood block that is 80% as dense as water will have 80% of the wood below the water line.
    • The H-below= H-full block times the density wood divided by the density of water.
  • For Activity 5, E1. Put the answer in %. The %I below= density of ice divided by density of salt water times 100%.
  • For Activity 6, C1. The basalt-above = H-full height of mantle minus the amount that is below the water. The amount that is below the mantle is the density of the basalt divided by the density of the mantle times the H-full height of the mantle.