Cell Biology

Cell Theory

  1. All living things are made up of a cell or cells
  2. All cells come from pre-existing cells
  3. All cells carry out all life processes (with the possible exception of reproduction)

An exception to cell theory is the _______________

Prokaryotic cells don't have a nucleus while eukaryotic cells do have a nucleus. A virus is neither!

Organelle and functions

An organelle is a specialized sub unit of a cell.

Know what these organelles look like and what they do. You must be able to identify them in an illustration. The asterisk means its a particularly important organelle. How many do you know already?

  • *Cell Wall:
  • *Cell Membrane:
  • Centrosome:
  • Centrioles:
  • *Chloroplast:
  • Cilia:
  • Cytoplasm:
  • Flagella:
  • Lysosome:
  • *Mitochondria:
  • Nuclear Membrane:
  • *Nucleus:
  • Nucleolus:
  • Organelle:
  • *Ribosome:
  • Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum:
  • *Vacuole:

Crash course in Animal and Plant Cells!


Parts of a Cell


How do animal cells differ from plant cells?

Animal Versus Plant Cells

  • Plant cells have cell _______, animal cells have cell membranes
  • Plant cells have chlorophyll/ chloroplast, animals don't
  • Plant cells have large _____________
  • Animal cells have ____________ and centrosomes, plants don't

Scale of the Small


Cell membrane

Crash Course on Cell Membranes and Transport

A plant's cell wall is mostly for __________ and structure.

The cell membrane is made of two layers of _______ and some chunks of __________. It has many different functions.

The cell membrane separates the cell from the ___________ environment.

It controls which molecules move in and out of the cell.

It shows _______ permeability- only some molecules can pass through it such as water and ________. This is called ________ transport.

Diffusion or ________ transport is the movement of materials from a region of __________ to __________ concentration of molecules. It is like the movement of perfume molecules around a room or the movement of people from the city to New Paltz.

___________ is the movement of water across the cell.

Hypo/hyper/isotonic solutions (when will the cell shrink/blow up)

________ molecules such as starch or protein need to be moved by ________ transport but it needs to find a _________ site to succeed.

________ is needed (in the form of ATP) to draw a large molecule across the cell membrane.

In active transport, molecules move from a region of __________ concentration to __________ concentration.

Endocytosis- when a cell takes in solids and liquids

Phagocytosis- when a cell takes in solids for food or to fight against foreign invaders.

Pinocyctosis- when a cell takes in liquids


Chemical Respiration

Organisms get energy by breaking chemical bonds in _______ molecules.

Two types:

Aerobic Respiration requires ________. Makes lots of energy efficiently!

Anaerobic Respiration uses no oxygen. Terrible source of energy.


Crash Course on ATP and Energy

The released energy of chemical respiration is used to make ATP. ATP stands for Adenosine _____phosphate. Its a molecule that stores chemical energy in _______ for later use by the cell. It gives all organisms their energy.

Made in the _______________ (the power house of the cell) of both plants and animals.

Made from ADP (Adenosine Diphosphate), phosphate and __________ (food energy).




The energy stored in ATP is later released by ____________ to make energy.




Anaerobic Respiration (also called fermentation)

Only ___ ATP molecules are made for every glucose molecule. Two types:

1. Bacteria and your _________ after a hard workout.




Lactic acid is produced as an end product to this type of respiration. You've experienced the effect of lactic acid build up in your muscles. It is what gives us that __________ sensation which stops muscles from performing at their best.

2. Yeast cells




Alcohol and ________ _________ are the end products which is used to make alcoholic beverages and rise dough!


Aerobic Respiration

_____ ATP molecules are made from every glucose molecule.



The end products are Carbon Dioxide and Water.

Video on ATP and Respiration



Crash Course on Photosynthesis

Green plants get their energy from the ______!! Photosynthesis is a process where sunlight and carbon dioxide is converted into _______.

Photosynthesis is the opposite reaction of chemical aerobic ___________.




Note the by product of ___________! We would not survive without plants.

Photosynthesis occurs in _____________. They change their orientation depending on the amount of light hitting the leaf!

Guess which wavelength of color is NOT absorbed by chloroplasts? Here is a hint: the color an object reflects is actually the color you see! ___________. Actually plants prefer blue and red wavelengths.

Oxygen and carbon dioxide get in and out of the cell through an opening on the underside of leaves called ________- it is sort of like our ______.

Photosynthesis happens day and night in two different steps:

Light Reaction:

Light splits water into hydrogen and ________ in the chlorophyll and makes energy.




Dark Reaction:

Energy (from the light reaction) and carbon dioxide join to create _________.




Note: no light is needed for this step

The Photosynthesis Rap

Virtual Photosynthesis Lab

Bagged Branches Lab


Pond Critters

Plant Cell Coloring

Animal Cell Coloring

Cell Organelle Functions

Cell Theory Rap