Intro to Biology



Introduction to the Characteristis of Life- You Tube

The 7 life processes all living things carry out:

      1. __________

      2. Cellular respiration --> IT'S NOT JUST BREATHING!

      3. Synthesis and Assimilation

      4. Regulation aka "respond to stimulus"

      5. Transport

      6. __________

      7. Reproduction

All life processes make up an organism's ______________


What happens to an organism that fails to maintain homeostasis?

The Blob Fish




Lab Techniques and Safety- Crash Course

Safety in the Biology Laboratory Lab

Lab Safety - Do's and Don'ts



Observation- what is seen or ___________.

Inference- conclusion based on _________ or evidence

But if you aren't careful, it can lead to wrong assumptions, _____________ and misinformation.

For example, when people eat ice cream, there are more cases of __________!

And then there is the case of the six blind men and the elephant...

How can we be more sure of ourselves?

"What Happened Here?" Lab

The Scientific Method!

A systematic, precise _____________ study of a problem.

The steps of the scientific method include:

1. Observation - The investigator notes a phenomenon that poses a ____________.

2. Hypothesis formulation - The hypothesis is an ___________ prediction.

3. Prediction - The investigator makes a statement about what s/he believes will happen when the hypothesis is put to the test. A good hypothesis states both cause and ________ ("If-________" statements).

4. Experimental design - The investigator designs an experiment which will yield data to either support or _________ one or more of the competing hypotheses.

5. Data collection - The experiments are run, and ______ are collected.

6. Data analysis - The data are subjected to rigorous analysis to determine whether any deviation from the prediction is truly meaningful, or merely due to _________.

7. Conclusion - The investigator determines whether the outcome of the experiment refutes or supports the ____________.

If the experiment is successful you could be on your way to your own __________. A theory is a broad explanation of natural events that is supported by strong evidence and testing.


Controlled Experiments!

A controlled experiment compares the results of an experiment between two or more ____________.

Experimental group: Group being ___________ or receiving treatment (ex. new drug)

Control group: Normal group. Should be identical to the experimental group in every way except _________. (ex. The control group does not receive any drug treatment.)

Placebo: A sugar pill or other fake treatment given to the control group so they THINK they are being treated and don't know they are the control!

Independent Variable: Variable that is being _______. (ex. the new drug)

Dependent Variable: Variable that is ___________ at the end of the experiment; the results. (ex. does the patient get better?)

Experimental Design Worksheet

The Scientific Method Lab


1.Title the graph (The affect of _____ on _______.)

2. Label the X and Y axis. The independent variable always goes on the ___ axis. The dependent variable goes on the ____ axis.

3. Determine a proper ________ for X and Y axis.

4. Set up a _____ or legend if necessary.

Graphing Lab

Characteristics of a good experiment

1. Can be _________ by anyone and get the same results

2. Has a large sample _______/ many test subjects

3. Are performed for ___________ periods of time

4. Tests only ______ variable

5. _______ reviewed

6. Does _______ have to ________ with the hypothesis

7. Is objective.



Parts of the microscope and magnification:

1. Eyepiece: the part that you ___________ through (closest to the eye) usually 10x

2. Objective Lens: the ____________ part closest to the slide (high power=usually 40x; low power=usually 10x)

3. Fine Adjustment Knob: used to focus on low & _______ power

4. Course Adjustment Knob: used to focus only on _______ power

5. Stage: where the ________ is placed

6. Stage Clips: ________ the slide in place

7. Diaphragm: controls the amount of __________ used


How to calculate total magnification:

If a microscope has a 10X eyepiece, and 10X and 40X objectives.

Total Magnification on low power: 10 x 10 = ________X (it looks _____ times bigger than real life)

Total magnification on high power: 10 x 40 = _______X (it looks _____ times bigger than real life)

Amazing electron microscope images


Looking at the letter "e" under a microscope

1. Mirror image and flipped _______ side down.

2. Increasing the magnification _________ the field. (Larger image but you see less of it)

3. Increasing the magnification reduces the amount of _______. (Field darkens)


How to make a wet mount slide:

Put the cells on the center of a slide, put a drop of water with a dropper onto the cells (do not touch the cells); lower a cover slip slowly at an ________ (to reduce the number of air __________)


How to put stain on a slide without lifting the cover slip:

Put a drop of the stain onto the edge of the cover slip; place a ______ _______ on the edge of the other side of the cover slip, the ______ ________ will pull the water from under the cover slip, and in turn pull the stain onto the cells.

Letter "e" Lab
Magazines and Thread Lab


Additional Laboratory Techinques

Electrophoresis- used to solve crimes!

  • A process that is used to __________ pieces of DNA by placing the DNA in a special gel and adding ______________.
  • First the strand of _______ is _____ into several pieces using special _____________.
  • Then the mixture of DNA ____________ is loaded into wells of the _______.
  • When ____________ is put through the gel, the DNA ______________ are sorted by size.

Who done it?



  • A process of separating solutions of _____________ based on how fast the differently sized molecules travel through special filter ___________.

So, why is it so special?



  • Used to ______ a suspension to seperate the particles based on their ___________.
  • Heavy particles are on the __________- lighter are on the _______.

What would happen if YOU were inside one.



  • Compounds that show ____________ properties usually by ___________ change
  • ex. pH paper, pool water test kits



  • A substance that makes parts of a cell structure more _____________.
  • A common stain is iodine