Basic Chemistry

1. The most common elements in living things are (in order):

    • __________
    • Hydrogen
    • ___________
    • Nitrogen

2. Organic Compounds have Carbon AND Hydrogen

    • C___H___O___ is organic
    • H__O, CO__, and NO3 are not

3. Compounds are made of two or more ___________.

4. Molecules are made of __________.

5. A chemical formula tells us how ________ atoms are in each molecule. A chemical structural diagram shows us how the atoms are ____________.




6. The pH scale measure the strengths of acids and bases. A low pH (0-6.9) is a _______, a
high pH (7.1-14) is a ________, and 7 is neutral (water but not rain water).

Basic Chemistry Fill in the Blank Notes
Adventures in pH Lab


Important Biomolecules

Crash Course on Biological Molecules (Carbs, Fats and Proteins)

1. Carbohydrates are ________ and starches. Carbs supply _________.

    • All carbohydrates are made from simple __________ (like glucose) which contain C, H and O. The ratio of H and O is 2:1.
      • Monosaccharides (simple __________) are in _______ form. ex. glucose and fructose

      • Disaccharides are made of ______ combined simple sugars such as sucrose (a glucose plus a fructose).
      • Polysaccharides (such as starch and cellulose) are made of ___________ to ___________ of glucose sugars!
    • Indicators for carbohydrates
      • Lugol's Iodine turns from _____________ to ________________ when ____________ is present.
      • Benedict's solution turns from _____________ to ________________ when ____________ is present.

2. Lipids include ______, oils and waxes and store energy.

    • They are made C, H and O.
    • They _________ water.
    • Serve as an energy ___________, insulation and cell membrance component.
    • Lipids are made from 1 glycerol and 3 fatty acids.



3. Proteins are made from ________ acids and make a million things in your body.

    • They are made C, H and O.
    • Made of a long chain of amino acids (20 different kinds!) called a _____________
    • The protein function can either be:
      • structural (like making hair)
      • or regulatory

        1) make ___________
        2) make receptor molecules on the cell membrane. These are used to receive chemical messages (like hormones).
        3) make ____________
        4) make hormones

    • It is the _____________ of proteins that determines what they can do.
      • The shape is determined by the amino acid _____________.
        • example shapes: flat sheets, long strands, blobby

Caloric Content of a Meal (and Lunchables)- Calorie calculator
Crash Course: Obesity



Enzymes are huge protein molecules that are responsible for thousands of metabolic changes in your body that keep you alive.

The purpose of an enzyme is to allow the cell to carry out chemical reactions really quickly.

Enzymes lower the activation energy needed for a chemical reaction to occur which means that the ________ needed for the reaction to take place is _______!

  • This makes them a catalyst which means they can ________ up or __________ down the ________ of a chemical reaction. (Often quadrillion-fold or more)
    • For instance, digesting food or moving your __________

There are two important facts to know:

1) Lock and key model– one type of enzyme has a specific ______ with another type of molecule. Change its shape and the enzyme will no longer _______.

2) Very high temperatures cause enzymes to _______ their shape so that they no longer ________ properly. This is why high fevers are dangerous.

Enzymes can lose it in weird _______'s, nasty chemical ______ and high ________ too.

Other fabulous facts to consider:

  • Enzymes don't get _______ up in reactions!
  • Names often end in –_____ and indicate the substrate
  • Enzyme action dependent on ______ of enzyme

Stomach enzymes- yeah!

Salivary Amylase Lab
Jello Lab


Chemical Reactions

Chemical reactions are the process that changes one set of _____________ into another set of compounds. Reactions involve making or breaking ________.

ex. reactants are broken into products

2 H20 -> 2 H2 + 02

When bonds are made, energy is _________.
When bonds are _________, energy is released.

Dehydration synthesis occurs when molecules link up to form a _________ molecule. The linkage occurs by the removal of a _______ molecule.

A typical example is when two ________saccharides combine to form a disaccharide



Hydrolysis is the act of breaking down a _______ molecule into __________ molecules by adding a _________ molecule. It is the opposite of _________ ____________.

Sucrose can be divided into glucose and fructose by replacing existing chemical bonds with the atoms in a _________ molecule!




The Saltine Cracker Test

But chemical reactions can take a lot of energy and take a long time... how can we make things faster- ____________!