75% of the earth is covered by water.
The Water Cycle
Animated Movie on Water Cycle by Tim and Moby
1. Molecules of water are heated by insolation, and water evaporates into the atmosphere.
2. As the water vapor is carried higher, the dew point is eventually reached, resulting in condensation, or clouds.
3. As these droplets become bigger, they fall from the sky, making precipitation.
4. Precipitation that landed on land becomes runoff, or groundwater. Both eventually end up in the ocean.
5. Some is evaporated and carried over land.
6. When water is in oceans, the cycle begins again.
There is 37 times more fresh water underground than in lakes, streams, and glaciers.
Water Movement through the Soil Video
The amount of open space in a material.
Puzzler sorted and unsorted particles
The rate at which water can infiltrate a material.
Permeable- water can pass through it.
Impermeable- no water can flow through it.
Puzzler sorted sediments
Video on Porosity and Permeability
The ability of water to move (over opposite of gravity) in the soil due to adhesion, cohesion and surface tension.
Rainbow Walking Water Video
The Water Table- The water table is the highest point at which the ground is saturated with water..
Zone of Saturation- zone in which all pores are filled with water.
Capillary Fringe- zone where water is pulled up by capillary action
Zone of Aeration- zone where pores are filled with air.
Soil moisture zone- zone where the soil is moist from surface water.
Loose or impermeable rock filled with water.
Hole that reaches the water table that fills with water from a aquifer.
Wells that form with force due to the Hydrostatic
Pressure, or the weight of the water pushing down, making the
water spout with energy when tapped.
The higher the latitude, the lower the angle of insolation. The closer to the equator, the higher the angle of insolation.
The sunlight varies during the day due to the sun's path
The duration of the insolation can vary throughout the year, the more extreme the further away from the equator.
The length of night and day.
Color- Black and other dark colors absorb heat, light colors reflect heat.
Snow is light and reflects heat, and urban pavement absorbs heat.
Specific Heat Capacity-
Ability of an object absorb heat without heating up.
Liquid water 1.0 Add 1 calorie of heat and Temperature raises 1 degree C
Lead .003 Add 1 calorie of heat and Temperature raises 33 degree C
Determines angle of insulation and duration of insolation
New York has 15 hours of daylight in summer
New York has 9 hours of daylight in summer
The equator has 12 hour days at all times (Torrid Zone)
The poles have 6 month days and 6 month nights. (Frigid Zone)
Pressure and wind bands-
Pressure and wind bands are set in dominant patterns
Currents transport hot water to the poles each year. The Gulf stream is an example of a dominant current.
The higher you travel, the lower the temperature.
That is why there are mountains in the tropics that are covered
snow and glaciers.
The landscape itself can have an effect. On
the west coast for example, the Cascades set up a situation where
are tropical areas to the west of the mountains, and desert on the eastern side of the same mountain range.