FINAL EXAM REVIEW

Reproduction and Development

 

Sexual Reproduction

 

I. Interior and Exterior Reproduction

Vocabulary:

somatic cell
sex cell
gamete
zygote
egg cell
sperm cell
internal fertilization
external fertilization
parthenogenesis

Essential Questions:

  1. In what ways do creatures that reproduce by internal fertilization different from those who practice external fertilization? Be sure to include number of eggs, location of fertilization, where the offspring is located and degree of parental care.
  2. Which animals undergo internal fertilization and which fertilize externally?

  3. Why is fertilization between two different individuals superior to having offspring from a single parent.

 

II. Human Female Reproduction System

Vocabulary:

ovaries
oviducts (fallopian tubes)
uterus
cervix
clitoris
follicle
vulva
estrogen
menstrual cycle
follicle stage
ovulation
corpus luteum
secondary sex characteristics
menopause

Essential Questions:

  1. What are the function of the ovaries?

  2. What is the function of estrogen?

  3. Trace the path of the unfertilized egg as it leaves the ovary.

 

III. Human Male Reproduction System

Vocabulary:

testes
epididymis
vas deferens
urethra
penis
scrotum
sperm
prostate gland
seminal vesicle
bulbourethral gland (Cowper's gland)
testosterone

Essential Questions:

  1. What are the function of the testes?

  2. What is the function of testosterone?

  3. Trace the path of sperm as it leaves the testes.

 

Embryology

I. The Beginning

Vocabulary:

Cleavage
Blastula
Ectoderm
Endoderm
Gastrulation
Fraternal Twins
Identical Twins
Mesoderm
Morula
Yolk

 

Essential Questions:

  1. What are the stages of embryonic development immediately after the egg is fertilized?
  2. What do the first three layers of our cells differentiate into?
  3. How do fraternal vs. identical twins form?

 

II. The Middle and End

Vocabulary:

Embryo
Fetus
Gestation
Placenta
Umbilical Cord

 

Essential Questions:

  1. At what time period is a human embryo considered a fetus?
  2. Does the blood of the mother and baby intermix?
  3. Where does the umbilical cord run to and from?
  4. How is the uterine lining maintained?
  5. What is the gestation period of a human?

 

III. What came first? The chicken or the egg?

Vocabulary:

Placenta
Amnion
Chorion
Allantois
Yolk Sac

 

Essential Questions:

  1. Are the differences between human and chicken embryo development?
  2. What are the functions of the different parts of the chicken egg?
  3. What features of the chicken egg allow birds to successfully mature outside their mother’s body?

 

Asexual Reproduction

 

Parts of a Cell

Vocabulary

    * Cell Membrane
    * Nucleus
    * Nucleolus
    * Nuclear pores
    * Nuclear membrane
    * Centrosome
    * Centrioles
    * Ribosomes
    * Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
    * Mitochondria
    * Vacuole
    * Cell Wall
    * Cytoplasm

Essential Questions:

  1. Know the difference between animal and plant cells.
  2. Be able to list the parts of a cell involved with the transcription of DNA and synethesis f proteins.
  3. Be able to label the parts of an animal and plant cell given an illustration.

Types of Asexual Reproduction

Vocabulary

  • Binary Fission
  • Vegetative Propagation
  • Budding
  • Sporulation
  • Fragmentation
  • Parthenogenesis
  • Cloning

 

Essential Questions:

  1. Be able to give examples of animals and/or plants that reproduce asexually.
  2. Know the advantages and disadvantages of reproducing asexually.

 

DNA

Vocabulary

    * DNA
    * Double Helix
    * Deoxyribose sugar
    * Phosphate
    * Nitrogenous base
    * Nucleotide
    * Adenine
    * Thymine
    * Guanine
    * Cytosine
    * Uracil
    * Chromatin
    * Chromosome
    * Complementary
    * Codon
    * Translation
    * Transcription
    * Protein
    * Hydrogen bonds
    * Polypeptide
    * mRNA (messenger)
    * tRNA (transfer)
    * Watson and Crick
    * Gene
    * Chromosome

Essential Questions:

  1. How does DNA differ from RNA
  2. What is the function of DNA?
  3. Describe the steps in replicating DNA and synthesizing protein.
  4. Where does protein synthesis occur?
  5. Where are the DNA located in the cell?
  6. What can happen during DNA replication that can cause mutations?
  7. What determines whether a mutation is inheritable or not?
  8. How many nitrogen bases are there and how are they paired?
  9. Be able to create a complementary m_RNA sequence from a DNA strand.
  10. What is the shape of DNA? Who discovered the shape?
  11.  What is a protein?
  12. What holds the nitrogen base pairs together in a DNA molecule?
  13. What makes up a nucleotide?
  14. Be able to label the parts of a codon.

Mitosis and Meiosis

Mitosis

Vocabulary

Mitosis
Somatic
Sister Chromatids
Centromere
Spindles
Aster
Diploid
Parent Cells
Daughter Cells
Homologous pair
Interphase
Prophase
Metaphase
Anaphase
Telophase
Cytokinesis

Essential Questions:

1. What types of cells undergo mitosis?

2. What are the stages of mitosis and what occurs at each step?

 

Meiosis

Vocabulary

Meiosis
Haploid
Monoploid
Sex cell
Gonads (male and female)
Gametogenesis
Oogenesis
Spermatogenesis
Polar bodies
Synapsis
Tetrad
Crossing Over

Essential Questions:

  1. Where does meiosis take place?
  1. Why is meiosis called reduction division?
  1. Why is it a genetic advantage for a species to undergo meiosis as opposed to vegetative reproduction?
  1. What is the difference in chromosome number of a somatic cell compared to a sex cell? A zygote to a sex cell.
  1. Why are haploid gametes necessary to maintain the chromosome number of the offspring?
  1. How is spermatogenesis different from oogenesis?
  2. How does meiosis differ from mitosis?