Solar System

 

http://www.rri.res.in/~biman/cartoon8.JPG

 

  • Began 5 ________ years ago when gas and dust collapsed due to gravity
    • Rotation- spins around axis
    • ____________- one trip around the sun

 

Fun Facts about the Planets

Mercury- biggest _____________ difference. 441 to --279 degrees F, one day is ______ of its year, covered in craters

Venus- volcanoes, extreme ______________ effect, rains __________ acid, day is longer than a year and rotates backwards

Earth- well you know about that!

Mars- ________ from iron oxide! Evidence of water erosion. Gigantic face on Mars was thought to be evidence of aliens! The Mars Rovers have yet to find life.

Asteriod Belt- rocky fragments of a failed _________ that circle the sun. Never formed into a planet due to gravitational pull from Jupiter.

Jupiter- failed sun (brown planet), _______ times the mass of all the other planets combined!, belts of colored clouds, day is 9 hours! Great ______Spot- red swirling hurricane.

Saturn- rings are failed moon, so light it ________ on water.

Uranus- ______ planet, rings, rotates sideways!

Neptune- blue planet, moving great dark spot, rings.

Pluto- dwarf planet, not a real planet because small, rocky and has ________ orbit, switches with Neptune for ____th planet.

 

Homework: Pick a planet and research its characteristics. Then, design a creature that could survive on that planet!

 

ALien Creature Design Lab

Planetary Creature Fact sheet

Planetary Data Sheet- reference tables

Welcome to the Planets facts

Nine Planets facts

Designing Your Alien!

 

2 Types of Planets

Terrestrial-
Jovian/ Gas Giant-

Note that the inner planets are all tiny and crowded in close to the sun!

Fun fact: Planets were orginally named (in latin) for the days of the week.

Here's a good way to remember the order of planets:

My Very Excellent Mother Just Sent Us N__________! (or Nine Pizzas!!)

Ways to tell a planet from a star:

  • Planets appear to move a lot ___________ through the sky than stars.
  • Stars twinkle, planets don't
  • Some planets can be a lot ___________ than any of the stars (except for our sun!)

New planets outside our solar system are found all the time!

 

 

Other Objects in the Solar System

Moons- orbit planets

Comets- dirty ___________

  • frozen gas-
  • highly tilted orbit
  • tail of comet is pushed by solar _________ (charged particles)- pushed opposite the sun

Meteor- rocky particle that enters our atmosphere. A __________ star!

Asteroid- large meteor that orbits the sun (often comes from the asteroid belt)

How often do meteors and asteroids hit the Earth?

  • pea sized rock hits our atm every ___________
  • grapefruit size _____ a year
  • 1/2 football field size every ________ years
  • 1 mile wide- every __00,000 years
  • 6 miles wide (size that killed the dinosaurs)- every __00 million years

Can we stop the next big one?

 

Historical Astronomy

Ptolemy- 87-150 A.D. Proposed the Geocentric Model for the Solar System- the ________ was at the center of the solar system and every planet and the sun revolved around it!

Planets were believed to travel in perfect _________ around the Earth and to move in retrograde motion- planets drifted ___________ and forwards!

http://www.oswego.edu/~kanbur/a100/lecture4.html

This was the accepted model for 13 centuries and backed by the Church.

Copernicus- 1473-1543 A.D. Proposed the Heliocentric Model for the Solar System which correctly placed the _______ at its center.

Tycho Brahe- 1546-1601. Impossibly rude man who was an excellent observer of nature. Catalogued hundreds of ________. Lost his ________ in a duel over mathematics!

Johannes Kepler- 1571-1630. Assistant to Brahe and extraordinary mathematician. Proposed the Laws of Planetary Motion.

  1. Planets move in ellipses- ________ not circles.
  2. The __________ a planet is to the sun in its orbit the faster it will move
  3. Between two planets, the _______ planet will orbit fastest.

Galileo Galilei 1564-1642. Father of modern observational astronomy. Challenged the geocentric model. Placed under _________ arrest for heresy. Improved the telescope.

  1. Saw the moon had ___________- Imperfect sphere!!!
  2. Discovered four _________ of Jupiter. Everything "should" revolve around the Earth!
  3. Found the phases of Venus to indicate it revolved around the _______ not the Earth.
  4. Discovered sun_________ (which caused him to go blind)- Imperfect sphere!!!!!

Isaac Newton- Proposed the mathematical formula for _________.

  1. The more massive the planets the _________ the gravity between them.
  2. The _________ the planets, the greater the gravitational pull.

Elvis weighed 225 on Earth...

How much would Elvis weigh on:

  • Elvis on Mercury- 97 lbs
  • Elvis on Jupiter- _______ lbs
  • Elvis on the moon- 43 lbs
  • Elvis on the SUN- _______ lbs

Gravity experiment in space

 

Eccentricity- How oval an orbit is. The higher the number the more oval the orbit. The numbers range between 0 and 1.

eccentricity= distance between the foci divided by the length of the major axis

Eccentricity of a circle is _______. The eccentricity of a straight line is 1.

 

Fun fact: The Earth's orbit is a very slight ellipse. During fall and winter we are closer to the sun so it is shorter in duration than spring and summer.

 

ELLIPSE lab

 

The Sun!

The sun contains 99.9% of the mass of the solar system and it is 93 million miles away. If it burned out right NOW it would take us ____ minutes to realize it.

Gallery of pictures

Sun Spots are darked regions of the sun's surface caused by magnetic storms that surge every ____ years!

Animations

Northern lights are created when solar wind interacts with our magnetosphere.

Aurora Boreolis

 

What's up in space