## Physical Geology Lab Final Exam Review But not of course if you study hard!

Topographic Maps

Understand the following vocabulary words:
contour interval
equator
fractional scale
graphic scale
International Date Line
latitude
longitude
maximum relief
Prime meridian
representative fraction
verbal scale
vertical exaggeration
vertical scale

Know the answer to the following questions:
1. Know how to find the fractional scale of a map.

2. Know how to find the contour interval and the elevation of specific points.

3. Be able to draw a contour map given random elevation points.

a. Be able to estimate the height of an object on a map.

4. Be able to convert the distance between two points on a map to the actual distance on the ground.

5. Know how to convert fractional scale to ground distances.

• ex. If two points are 5 inches apart on a map what is the actual ground distance if the fractional scale is 1:50,000?

5. Be able to locate the correct profile drawing between two points on a map.

6. Be able to determine a profile’s horizontal scale and vertical exaggeration.

• ex. If the fractional scale is 1:50,000 and the profile drawing indicates a 50 foot rise for every inch, what is the vertical exaggeration?

STREAMs

Understand the following vocabulary words:
alluvium
divide
drainage basin
meanders
cutbank
point bar
oxbow lake

Know the answer to the following questions:
1. Know how the speed of a river would change after forming an oxbow lake.

2. Know how to find the stream gradient on a map.

3. Know whether the beginning or the end of a river is mostly erosional or depositional.

4. Know which side of a meander is erosional and which side is depositional.

5. Know how oxbow lakes form.

Structural Geology

Understand the following vocabulary words:
lithologic symbols
hanging wall
footwall
normal fault
reverse fault
strike slip fault
intrusion
dip
attitude
block diagram
anticline
syncline
plunging
assymetrical fold

Know the answer to the following questions:
1. Know how to indicate the strike and dip on a block diagram.

2. Know the correct symbols for anticline and syncline. Know where to place them on a block diagram. Know which units are the oldest and youngest.

3. Know how to complete the edge of a block diagram.

4. Be able to draw a block diagram of a normal, reverse and strike-slip fault.

5. Know how to identify which side of a fault is the hanging wall and footwall.

6. How do you determine if a fault is normal or reversed?

Historical Geology

Understand the following vocabulary words:
unconformity
disconformity
nonconformity
angular unconformitygeologic time scale
geologic cross section
principle of original horizontality
principle of superposition
principle of lateral continuity
principle of cross-cutting relationships
geologic column
relative ages
absolute ages

Know the answer to the following questions:
1. Know how to determine the relative age of beds in a given geologic profile.

2. Be able to determine the relative ages of faults, intrusions, folds, tilts and unconformities in a geologic column.

3. What are the three different types of unconformities? Be able to identify them in a geologic profile.

4. Know how to find the absolute age of a rock given the appropriate numbers (half life, parent-daughter ratio, multiplication factor).

gROUNDWATER

Understand the following vocabulary words:
groundwater
aquifer
permeable
cone of depression
water table
land subsidence
sink hole

Know the answer to the following questions:
1. Be able to complete the isolines on a map showing the depth of the water table.

2. Be able to determine the direction of groundwater flow by looking at the isolines of water table depth.

3. Be able to determine the hydraulic gradient of the water table between two points given a verbal scale. Know how to label gradient units!

Glaciation

Understand the following vocabulary words:
till
lateral moraine
end moraine
horn
arete
cirque
u-shaped valley
hanging valley
outwash plain
kettle lake
esker
drumlin

Know the answer to the following questions:
1. Know how the features of a landscape differ between mountain and continental glaciation.

2. Know which glacial features are depositional and which are erosional.

3. Be able to identify the glacial features listed in the above vocabulary words on a diagram.

4. What do the shapes of drumlins indicate about the direction of ice flow?

5. How does the shape of a glaciated valley differ from that of a river valley? Be able to sketch a cross section of each type of valley.