10 WEEK BIOLOGY REVIEW

 

UNIT ONE REVIEW

Past Biology Regents Exams with Answers!

Characteristics of Living Things

All living things must maintain homeostasis.

1. To maintain homeostasis, organisms carry out the same basic life functions: reproduction,
excretion, transport, respiration, growth, synthesis and assimulation, and regulation. Know these terms!
2. All life processes make up an organism’s metabolism.
3. Failure to maintain homeostasis causes disease and death.

A. Growth- All animals and plants grow- initially anyway

B. Cellular Respiration: Organisms get energy by breaking the bonds of sugar molecules.

C. Transport: Food and oxygen is transported through the body

D. Regulation: Coordination and control of other life functions.

E. Reproduction: Making offspring

F. Excretion: Metabolic waste is removed from the body

G. Synthesis and assimulation: Making compounds and adding them to yourself!

 

SAFETY IN THE LAB

  • Don't point heating test tubes towards your face- it could explode in your face
  • Don't put a stopper on heating test tubes- it could explode in your face
  • Wear safety goggles- glass or dangerous chemicals could explode in your face
  • No open toe shoes- glass or dangerous chemicals could fall on your toes and they might explode
  • Tie back long hair- your hair could catch on fire or dip into unpleasant fluids and your head might explode

 

EXPERIMENTATION

A. Hypothesis: A new concept/hunch that is tested by the scientific method

B. Dependent Variable is the thing that will change DEPENDING on the independent variable. For instance, my weight DEPENDS on how much I eat. The dependent variable is my weight.

C. Independent Variable is the one thing that “I change” to test my hypothesis. It is what the dependent variable depends on- it is how much I eat in the above example.

D. Control Group is the group that is studied under the normal conditions. It is important in order to draw valid conclusions from an experiment.

E. Experimental Group is the group that is identical to the control group with the ONE CHANGE or difference (the Independent Variable).

F. Organizing Data- can use graphs, tables or diagrams

The Independent Variable goes on the X axis on a graph. The Dependent Variable goes on the Y axis.

E. Labeling a graph:

1.Title the graph (The affect of _____ on _______.)
2. Label the X and Y axis.
3. Determine a proper scale for X and Y axis.
4. Set up a key or legend if necessary.

F. How can you make an experiment more valid?

1. Repeat the experiment given identical conditions
2. Increase the number of specimens or trials.
3. Peer review

G. Parts of the microscope and magnification- know where to find them on a diagram

1. Eyepiece: the part that you look through (closest to the eye) usually 10x
2. Objective Lens: the magnifying part closest to the slide (high power=usually 40x; low power=usually 10x)
3. Fine Adjustment Knob: used to focus on low & high power
4. Course Adjustment Knob: used to focus only on low power
5. Stage: where the slide is placed
6. Stage Clips: hold the slide in place
7. Diaphragm: controls the amount of light let into the microscope

How to calculate total magnification: if a microscope has a 10X eyepiece, and 10X and
40X objectives.

  • Total Magnification on low power: 10 X 10 = 100X (it looks 100 times bigger than real life)
  • Total magnification on high power: 10 X 40 = 400X (it looks 400 times bigger than real life)

H. If you looked at the letter under a microscope, what would it look like?

1. Mirror image and flipped up side down.
2. Increasing magnification reduces the field of view. (Your field of vision is larger under low power but you see less of it)
3. Increasing the magnification reduces the amount of light. (Field darkens)
4. To move an object under magnification- move the object with the knobs on the stage the OPPOSITE direction that you want it to go.

I. How to make a wet mount slide:

Put the cells on the center of a slide, put a drop of water with a dropper onto the cells (do not touch the cells); lower a cover slip slowly at an angle (to reduce the number of air bubbles). You can place a paper towel on the edge of the cover slip to draw fluids through and out of the cover slip.

J. Additional Laboratory Techinques

  1. Electrophoresis- A process that is used to compare fragments of DNA by using electricity.
  2. Chromatography- A process of separating solutions of chemicals based on how fast the differently sized molecules travel through special filter paper.
  3. Centrifuge- Used to seperate the particles based on their density Heavy particles are on the bottom- lighter are on the top.
  4. Indicators- Compounds that show chemical properties usually by color change
  5. Stains- A substance that makes parts of a cell structure more visible.

 

UNIT TWO REVIEW

Vocabulary

adaptation
cladogram
Darwin
evolution
fossil record
genetic shuffling
genetic variation
geographic isolation
geologic time
gradualism
homologous structures
Lamark
mutation
natural selection
overproduction
punctuated equilibrium
reproductive isolation.speciation
struggle for surival
variation
vestigial

 

Essential Questions

Taxonomy

  1. Why was Linnaeus' systems selected over previous systems?
  2. What does the scientific name of an organism tell you about it?
  3. List the major taxons from broadest to most specific.
  4. What is the purpose of a classification system?
  5. How does a taxonmic key help to identify unknown organisms?

Evidence of Evolution

  1. Where do evolutionists derive the support for their theories?
  2. Why is sedimentary rock important to the study of evolution?
  3. What make structures homologous?
  4. How do cladograms indicate whether two species have a common ancester?

Modern Evolution

  1. How are adaptions or "fitness" important in evolution?
  2. How can geographic isolation result in speciation?
  3. Summarize Darwins' theory of natural selection.
  4. Why is the peppermoth a good example of natural selection?
  5. What are the three steps of natural selection?
  6. What are the two causes of variations in species that could eventually lead to evolution?
  7. How do gradual vs. punctuated equilibrium differ when viewed on a time graph?
  8. How do cladograms tell us how closely two species might be related to each other?