Biomes of the World Notes

 

BIOMES:

Virtual World Biomes

 

Deserts:

-rainfall and climate:

-warm, dry, descending air creates desert bands at 30 degrees N and S

-sparse but species-rich community dominated by shrubs and small trees

-dominant plants
        adaptations to conserve water and protect from predation

-dominant animals:

-soils:

-human disturbances
        slow to recover because of harsh climate

 

Grasslands/Savannas:

-rainfall and climate:
        seasonal cycles for temperature and precipitation

-located in continental interiors

-dominant plants:
        frequent grass fires

-dominant animals:

-soils:

-human disturbances
        fire suppression
        conversion into farmland
        soil erosion
        hunting
        wetland drainage

 

Tundra:

-rainfall and climate:

-located at far North and South latitudes and high elevations

-dominant plants:
        

-dominant animals:

         -soils
                  permafrost
                 
-human disturbances
         slow to heal
         oil and natural gas wells in the arctic
         truck ruts and tracks

 

Conifer Forest: (boreal forest/taiga)

-rainfall and climate:

-between 45 and 50 degrees North latitude
        
-many lakes, potholes, bogs, and fens

-dominant coniferous trees:

-dominant animals:

-soils:
        
        
-Sub-type: temperate rainforest
       luxuriant plant growth and huge trees

-human disturbances
        timber, turpentine, and rosin

 

Broad-Leaved Deciduous Forest:

-rainfall and climate:

-four seasons- requires adaptations for the frozen season

-dominant trees:

-dominant animals:

-soils:

-human disturbances- most hard hit by man
        trees harvested for timber

 

Tropical Rain Forest:

cover only 6% of the Earth's surface- about the size of the contiguous US, but houses over 1/2 of the known plant and animal species

-rainfall and climate:

-located near the Equator

-dominant plants:

-dominant animals:

-soils:

-subtype cloud forests

        high in the mountains
      fog and mist keep vegetation wet

-human disturbance
      deforestation
      agriculture

 

Chaparral/Thorn Scrub/Mediterranean:

-rainfall and climate:

-located 30 degrees north and south of equator

-dominant plants:

-dominant animals:

-soils:

 

Aquatic Biomes:

images

www.biocab.org/marine_environments.jpg

 

  • Categorized by the salinity (__________) of the water and location

Salty

Open Ocean

  • euphotic
  • bathyal zone
  • abyssal zone

Coasts

  • Coral Reefs
  • Mangroves
  • Estuaries

Freshwater

  • epilimnion
  • hypolimnion
  • thermocline

Lakes

  • littoral zone
  • limnetic zone
  • profundal zone
  • benthic zone

Wetlands

  • an area wet enough to support plants specialized to grow under __________ soil conditions.
  • highly productive and rich in biodiversity- home to many ____________ species
  • provide food and habitat for many species
  • stores floodwater (as does floodplains) and _________ water
  • _____% of the original wetlands are distroyed in US
  • less than 5% of land in US are wetlands
  • swamps have _______, marshes do not